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The creativity depends on how you use the routine products in such a way that it looks attractive to the viewer. Smoking is the common phenomenon among the members in the society. The technique of smoking with the old and opaque tools are traditional and hence no more in demand. With the developing economy the producers are focusing on the presentation of each and every elements in such a way that they present class for the user. Smoking pipe is the modern technique enhancing the way of smoking among the people. It is the way of consuming the drug through pipe. It allows the intake of the smoking cannabis, crack cocaine, pcp, opium and crystal methamphetamine. This pie has the hollow bulb at the other end to put the smoke out of it. The user receives the smell of the drugs and excrete the smoke out. Such pipes can either be simple or straight or curved in the Z shape depending upon the choice of the producers.
Functioning of the Glass Pipes
The user burns the drug and place them in the hollow sphere of the pipe. They take in the breath and gets the flavor, smell and smoke in the mouth. After experiencing the pleasure of smell they excrete out the smoke so taken. The proper consumption of such drugs and the way to enjoy them better, comes with the regular practice of the consumption. The smell of the drugs differ accordingly. Drugs like Crystal meth has the powerful and thicker smoke while those marijuana and other Cannabis has light smoke. However, the smell of cannabis are much more powerful than the smoke of shards structured crystal meth. Glass pipes are comfortable smoking pipes. They are mostly handmade and there size and color differs according to the suitability. The producers try to present the smoking pipes to the consumer in such a way that it seems easy and comfortable to use as well as attractive to the vision. The https://luxeproductsusa.com/collections/glass-pipes-1 site allows to choose the right pipe for the smoking.
Different Types of Glass Pipes
The variety of choice allows the user to experience different taste and size of the pipes. The length and size of such pipe effects the tastes and smoke of the drug. The people fond of smoking doesn’t get lots of choice on the offline stores in regards to the smoking pipes. The glass pipes are available in two forms-
- Translucent Glass Pipes: Such type of pipes allow the lights to pass through partially. The intake and phenomenon involved in the consumption of weed can be examined partially. The user may fail to experience the phenomenon of the smoke removal in the pipes.
- Transparent Glass Pipes: These type of glass pipes allows the light to pass through it completely. The phenomenon of weed ingestion is vividly clear from outside. The user can notice the movement of smoke through the pipes.
Components of the Smoking Pipes
The smoking pipes allow the user to feel high. The consumer experience the life in totally different manner. For the particular period of time it take you away from the real life and present you in life of fun. The smoking pipes involves four parts in the functioning:
- Mouthpiece: It is the first end of the pipe placed in the contact with the mouth. The user suspend the pipes with the lips and inhale the weeds component. It totally depends on the user how longer it can hold the smoke in the mouth. The beginners tends to hold it for the shorter time while the experienced one enjoys the complete phenomenon.
- Neck: After the mouth piece the pipe has the curve which moves it to the lower portion. Neck is that portion of the glass pipes which connects the bowl and mouthpiece at the edge.
- Bowl: The hollow portion located between the mouthpiece and the carb. The weeds are placed in it. The amount of drugs to be placed depends upon you. The bowl holds the weeds and makes the inhale easy for the user.
- Crab: The carb is the end portion of the glass pipes. It is located at the other edge of the pipes. This bulb shaped structure is used to excrete out the smoke from the human mouth outside.
Availability of the Choice
The user can experience the availability of choice regarding the glass pipes. They can select the best suitable pipe for them based on the size and shape. The experience and skilled smoker has better knowledge about the pipes. If you are still limited to the local shops for the pipes. You can readily visit this site for the best pipes available. Large number of glass pipes are available at reasonable price on this site. Switch to the glass pipe from the old and obsolete technique to enhance the smoking experience.
A light is a very simple natural phenomena which is an agent that kindles the ability to see things and make them visible. But, that is just the natural alight that is known to you. The artificial lights such as laser, LED, halogen, incandescent and so on are used for multiple purposes apart from just fulfilling the purpose of providing visibility. The other uses of artificial lights are curing diseases, helps in controlling the daily system of the human body, supervises the chemical changes in the body, and other biological purposes. One such source of medical healing is the contour LED. This light is used to treat fat and obesity related problems with non-surgical methods. This method is used by surgeons and is considered to be much safer than going under the knife which is not always beneficial for the patient. The usage of lights for treating health related issues and curing patients has also been supported by many research studies, and their effectiveness has been found to be better than surgical methods. The lights have to be laser or light emitting diode lights that specifically serve the purpose of medical treatment.
What Are LED And Lipo Laser Lights And How Are They Used To Treat Medical Issues?
LED (Light Emitting Diode) and Lipo lights are laser based lights that are used to in machines for fat removal technology. The technology uses liposuction methodology to remove fat and cure people of obesity. The results produced by contour LED and lipo lights are positive and similar to the surgical method of fat removal or the traditional hostile process of liposuction. The light that is used has to be of high frequency and of lower wavelengths.
The liposuction technology using contour LED focuses short wavelengths on the affected area of the human body, which is full of fats or dead cells. The technology is also used for cancer treatment in patients. The lipo light works by focusing the energy of light on the fat accumulated inside the body and liquefies it. The fat in the form of adipose gets absorbed by the body and later gets removed naturally. This is a very important step as there is a category of fats that are even resistant to exercise and dieting. Thus, it becomes imperative for patients to go for this fat removal method. The human body is able to adjust itself to laser wavelengths before the real process of surgery begins. Contour LED as the name itself suggests carves the body into the right shape by heating the body and removing excess fat from it.
An Overview into the Machines Used To Treat Obesity with the Help of Contour Lights and Liposuction
The machine works on the concept of heating with the help of laser generating diodes which are used to heat the fat inside the body with the help of a heating element installed inside the machine. The diodes give rise to emissions that facilitate the generation of wavelengths that is the main source of optimal energy for the machine. The number of diodes present in the machine is what enhances the performance, and determines the area that can be covered by laser. The intensity of brightness also depends upon this factor.
The lipo laser and contour led light using machines have many pads installed which are called paddles. The number of paddles in a machine can range from four to twenty four in number depending upon the model and size of machine. The number of diodes in each paddle is different. The first model is known to have four to six pads, and produced wavelengths of 660 to 670 nm. The present generation being the third generation has wavelengths ranging from 630 to 645 nanometres.
A Look at the Few Brands That Are Reliable In Liposuction Industry
There are a few models that are recommended by doctors and surgeons in the medical industry. They are:
- NLAL (laser): the machine is portable and was designed by an experienced medical practitioner. The cost is on the lower end and is considerably lower than other brands. This model is better than other brands as it produces effective laser technology which is not present in many other brands. The best benefit of this model is that it can be used by patients even while exercising. The NLAL laser is more powerful and effective than other machines as it is more stable and powerful than many other machines present in the industry for the same purpose. The level of heating is so good that it heats and dissolves almost six hundred calories every session.
- Contour Light: the contour light is one of the most powerful liposuction machine that works by emitting diodes and uses almost 1950 diodes at a single time. This allows the sessions to be of shorter duration and of high effectiveness. The model in place of paddle or pads uses straps. The machine is extremely powerful and the sessions conducted using this machine is speedy and produces positive results. The machine is safe for at home use as well and has been recommended by clinical researches.
- Zerona: is one of the oldest brands that is still serving its customers very effectively, and has the approval of Federal Drug Association or commonly called as FDA. The model is old school based but is still known to be effective in treating patients and giving positive results. The price of the model is a bit on the higher side due to its old school design.
Although, there are several machines and models available in the market but, one should purchase a model only after proper research and consultation from their doctor. The machine should be operated by a trained professional and under proper preventive methods. The model and their specifications can be researched online and there are online consultants who hold expertise in advising the patients and even surgical institutes who might be interesting in ordering the machine for treatment purposes.
Buying a new gadget is a hectic task and with so many options available, it becomes almost impossible to choose the best. Whether you are buying an appliance for your home, for your office or simply a small gadget, knowing all the available options is necessary. The question is where to invest your money in order to get the best return and the cheap and the best product. With https://thegreatdevice.com you get to know what’s trending and latest in the market without the pain of visiting shop to shop. All required information is available at your finger tip, on your mobile screen and all you have to do is to click and chose and swap. Here are details about some products which you will find extremely useful while buying huge gadgets as well as small appliances.
Let darkness hide in bowels of hell with brightest garage lightening
Your garage is not a place where you park your vehicle, but a multipurpose arena which you may use for workshop, music practice and for many other purposes. Such a place with so high importance should be lighted well to amplify your spirits and help you succeed in whatever you do in your dear parking place. Here are some qualities which you would like to have in your garage lights-
- They should not be very harsh: Harsh garage lights should be avoided as they flash upon the glass while you are parking your vehicle and may result in some unwanted incident.
- Less electricity consumption: If your garage is where you practice music or simply harbors your workshop, it is quite possible that you spend a lot of time there, sometimes whole night is spent working. It’s not feasible to use a high power consuming lightening device for long hours as the electricity bill will easily go out of the brim of your budget. In such a situation a device which consumes less energy is best suited for your place.
- Long lasting life: The garage lightening should be long lasting and should last till the whole worth of your money is utilized.
Hunt your game with handheld GPS and bag your game without much trouble
Hunting is a hobby of many but loosing game is really irritating and may spoil the fun of the game. Suppose you are standing beneath a shady tree and suddenly you see a dear next to it, it’s obvious that your adrenaline will shoot up and you would like to kill in the first shot but it breaks into a trot and runs and runs, you are likely to miss it but not with handheld GPS for hunting, which will show you the location of your game and you will definitely enjoy hunting in the modern way. Now when you are out to buy handheld hunting GPS, look for these qualities-
- Wide screen: A GPS screen should be wide enough to show the directions and locations clearly so that you don’t mess up with the way and hunting turns out to be bliss it was intended to be.
- All base maps should be preloaded: You obviously would not like to upload map in your phone standing in the mid of the jungle, right? So for the sake of your comfort and not being deceived at the time of emergency, do check that your device is preloaded with all the required maps.
- Easy sharing and good connectivity: When you are trapped in the forest hunting your game, you should be well connected with your friends and team and if possible to your family also to avoid getting lost uninformed.
- Your GPS should hunt for you: When you are already spending money in buying GPS, it should also be used to provide you rest which is possible in some GPS devices which have the option of finding game for you and all you need to do is follow the direction and shoot.
- Dynamic maps: Your GPS should be dynamic and never resist change, rather update itself time to time. Some new models provide you the option to add maps as per your will and are very helpful if you are going to an unknown and new place for hunting.
Information is weapon, so keep be updated to win the war of getting the best in the cheapest rate.
Are you the one who is living in the hard water area which is infested completely? If yes, then you must have a quality rated and functional system of water softener in your office and home quickly. Since years, the hard water has built reputation for damaging and mercilessly corroding the home pipes and appliances which make use of water as coffee maker, dishwasher and more. And the worst thing is that, it damages the skin too. You must not forget that it ruins hair and make them look drab. Fortunately, there is a way for killing this menace. One must install the water softener at home which can offer amazing results.
If you have now planned to buy these systems of water softener and looking out for the brand new one, then you should check out the water softener system reviews that can help you in deciding which product can well for you. The main objective is to help you in picking right water system for home, for some great results. These listed systems are the one that acts as best and can offer you right value at the same time. If you need a quick decision, then have a look at these product, their description, features, pros and cons to make an easy choice and get it installed in less time and effort.
- There are major brand in the industry of water softening. All water treatment appliances and devices are made of the quality rated material and known for its optimal performances. This is the system of grain water softener which is popular for permanent and efficient transformation of the hard water in large volumes into the soft water for both commercial and home settings. They are designed 100 per cent and even assembled in USA by making use of prime quality of materials, so there is no doubt that such a system can come for saving you from hard water without any failure.
Pros of grain water softener
- It includes the polygalas tank
- Make in USA
- It is metered digitally and comes with on-demand valve
- Comes with around 48,000 of grain capacity
- Easy in use as it includes the touch pad and LCD controls
- Includes 5 years of control head warranty and the 10 years of tank warranty
No demerits found as such of this product.
- 2. Reverse drinking water system: the reverse system of drinking water filter and the ultimate water softener is top in list as this starts with reverse osmosis system. It includes the WQA (Water quality association) gold seal that states it meets almost all required standard for every appliance of water treatment. It softens all household water efficiently and brings end of all scary threats which are associated with this hard water.
- It filters around 1000 water pollutants within the permeable membrane
- Holds the certification of WQA gold seal
- Includes 3.2 Gallon pressurized tank
- Comes with one year of warranty
The only demerit of this product is that it only comes with one year of warranty which is less time for an expensive water softener system
- Water softener: as per the water softener system reviews, this one are for all homeowners that are undergoing hard times. One can be pleased to note that such a water softener comes with pocket friendly cost. This is also termed as the most recommended water softener for home. You must also know that being tagged at low price, it is not at all a non-performer. It enjoys the higher popularity than other models.
Pros of water softener system
- Easy in installation
- Softens the water without removal of healthy nutrients
- Comes with one year of money back guarantee
- Offers longevity and don’t tear up soon
Less years of warranty is offered as compared to other brands
- Drinking water filter: if you are looking out for helpful system which can soften well the water and tap water, then you must bring home this water filter system.
- It is known for removing 99 per cent of the water pollutants and contaminants that are present in your water
- Makes the water healthy and safe for drinking.
It comes without any flaws.
Check out all the water softener system reviews online and make the best purchase today.
Dogs are the most faithful animals, and the best friends of mankind. Having a pet dog is the ultimate goal of many. A dog can make you happy like no one else can. They understand you, and unconditionally love you, through all the good and bad times of your life. Or at least this is what the humans feel like. Having a dog to love and be loved by is an absolute treasure and many people all around the world are keeping dogs as pets because of this same very lovable bond created between the two.
Dog safety and best wireless dog fence system:
Keeping your pet dogs safe and healthy is the utmost priority of every dog owner. This is why they et them vaccinations and healthy food and keep them away from all kinds of harms and dangers. It is also necessary to fence them in safe and secure boundaries so they don’t stray away or get themselves in danger.
However, keeping a dog in boundaries is not always possible. Sometimes all your dog really want is to go out and mess around and you simply can’t keep him in. other times, when you’re out for a walk, it becomes difficult to keep your dog where you want him to be. That is when the best wireless dog fence system comes in!
Best wireless dog fence system:
What is a wireless dog fence system? It means that there will be an invisible boundary set for your dog and the dog cannot go out of the fence. Every time he tries to sneak out of the fence he will be given a very mild shock, the purpose of which is not to scare away the dog but only to remind him that he is going out of the boundary.
How to choose the best wireless dog fence system:
It is necessary that you choose a dog fence system that is user friendly as well as dog friendly. Here at our website we will help you choose the best system for you and your dog.
Wireless pet containment system reviews:
We provide you with the top wireless pet fence reviews, so that we might help you in choosing the best system for you.
What do you need to look for when picking up a wireless pet containment system?
Well, first thing is the cost. If you decide and plan to construct a wooden fence for your dog, it can cost you fortunes. The wood, the construction, labour and installation, all together will cost you more money than you had imagined and will not be even worth it. Your wooden fence may not be weather friendly or it may place hurdles in your porch or front yard which might not be a very keen sight.
If you plan to buy a portable fence system, that might work for you. But only with the expenditure of a lot of money. Portable fence systems can cost you up to 1500$ while if you buy a wireless pet containment system, it will only cost an average of 500$.
There you go, a visible difference you have!
When you hit off to buy a wireless pet fence system, our wireless pet containment system reviews can help you through.
You have to make sure that the system you buy is:
- easy to install
- cost friendly
- user friendly
However, there are pros and cons to everything in the world. The con about a wireless dog fence system is that it might not work with full efficiency in place where there are too many hurdles or bushes etc., as it can blur away the boundaries. But, by using our top wireless pet fence reviews you can ensure that you are buying the most suitable product for your need.
How do our wireless pet containment system reviews on our website help you?
When you visit our website, you will see a table of comparison between the specifications of different models of wireless per fence systems, presented by different companies.
Clicking on the link will get you to the Amazon website, from where you can make the deal and buy your favorite pet fence system for your dog.
There are also the top wireless pet fence reviews mentioned with the links, that are specifically added there by other users of Amazon who have first handed experienced the product and their opinions and honest and helpful.
While looking for a wireless pet fence system it is necessary to keep in mind the size of your r dog. As the size of your dog can greatly affect the working and efficiency of your system. If you have smaller dogs, who can easily be harmed by other larger animals, it is compulsory the you find a system that can contain little animals more efficiently. While most systems work great with larger dogs, you will have to work and find a system best suited for your little sized creature.
The next thing you have to consider while going through wireless pet containment system reviews is that how many dogs can your system support? Usually the systems can support and fence in 1 to 2 dogs, but if your dog is planning to have puppies in the future or you are going to adopt more dogs you should have this in mind and prepare for it before handed. You should choose a pet containment system that works bet with a larger number of dogs so that you won’t have to replace your whole system every time a new member joins the family and you can save yourself the entire cost of replacement.
These are some of the points that you should keep in mind, while opting for the best wireless dog fence system, and our top wireless per fence reviews will make sure that you choose the best. After all, this is what our services are for!
So, keep loving your dog, and keep looking through out top wireless pet fence reviews.
If you have problems with difficult stains on carpets and urgently need a washing and cleaning carpet you can approach us who offers a good housekeeping service. Carpet cleaning have modern machines ideal to give a guarantee to the washing of your carpet, we use biodegradable detergents specially formulated to ensure a total cleaning; Parallel to the washing, a turbo dryer is used that provides quick drying of your carpet. We have highly qualified personnel responsible for a washing service. There is no type of carpet that is easier to keep clean because the lifestyles of people are different. However, there are several that tend to stay in good shape and look like new for many years. If you clean your carpet properly, taking into account the type of fabric and fibre, it will last you a long time. Owners who want a beautiful rug that is easy to care for and durable have many options.
Buying a good quality carpet is a good start to ensure that you can easily maintain it.
Any carpet you buy should be dense enough so that the backing is not easily seen when the fibres are folded back. Some carpets are resistant to stains, due to a very high density of fibres that repel dirt and stains. Others are treated with special chemicals that repel stains. If your carpet is resistant to stains or not, one way to keep it clean is to completely remove stains immediately.
When cleaning carpet spills at carpet cleaning, as much as possible should be erased before it is cleaned. A wet-dry vacuum will also help remove moisture from the carpet. Once the maximum amount of liquid is removed, a cloth moistened with club soda can be used to rub the fibres of the carpet and remove the stain. A light pinch of baking soda to dry and then vacuum later can also help.
Tips to keep your carpet clean by carpet cleaning:
- Buy the right type of carpet for your needs.
- Get the best quality you can afford.
- Have your carpet cleaned regularly by professionals??
- Use the cleaning method that is best for your type of carpet.
- Stop dirt on the door by removing shoes or using barriers.
The carpet made of nylon fibres is not only the most durable but also the easiest to clean. Polypropylene and polyester fibres do not hide stains or last so long. The compensation is that these are less expensive choices. Wool rugs are easy to clean because wool has natural water repellent properties and wool also has less static electricity to attract dirt. Wool can sometimes be a costly option, but carpet that is a mixture of wool and synthetic fibres can be durable and economical. Berber and other textured carpets have the advantage of showing less dirt. However, do not use printed fabric in areas of high traffic, as dirt will accumulate in low areas. This makes the carpet harder to vacuum and also makes cleaning an arduous task.
Regardless of the type of carpet, it is recommended that you use a professional carpet cleaning service. In the case of steam cleaning, the heating elements in the trucks can heat the water and the larger machines have more suction available to do a complete job.
Carpet cleaning dry at carpet cleaning:
Dry cleaning uses solvents and a very small amount of moisture to remove dirt and remove it from the carpet. The professionals have experience in the use of the chemical products necessary for the dry cleaning of carpets. If you point them at problem areas, they can give you additional treatment to remove stubborn stains. Even with regular professional cleaning, the cost of carpet maintenance is even less than the care of hardwood floors. The carpets are an object of decoration that gives warmth and personality to our environments. However, if we do not maintain them properly, besides losing the intensity of colour and caking, they can accumulate a lot of dust and with it, the mites that trigger some allergic processes.
What tricks can we recommend to clean the carpets and keep them in their optimal state?
The basic thing to keep our carpets clean is to vacuum them and brush them regularly. This is the basis of good maintenance and will keep them fluffy like the first day. In addition, a trick so that the colours remain bright and do not go out is to apply salt every 15 days. This should spread throughout the surface of the carpet and let it act for 60 minutes, after which it should be vacuumed. This treatment also serves if we want to store the carpet for a period of time, but in that case, we will not aspirate the salt, but we will roll the carpet with it and we will aspirate it when we are going to use it again.
All carpets will stay cleaner longer if dirt is not tracked from the outside. One way to guarantee this is to leave the shoes at the door. The design of the house can protect the carpet by having a tiled vestibule or an entrance to the mudroom. Keeping pets and food out of carpeted areas will also help keep carpets cleaner for longer.
Of course, no matter how careful you are, the carpet will attract some dirt. Vacuuming regularly will keep your carpet clean and new. It is much easier to remove dirt immediately than once it has settled. Aspirate with long, slow movements, giving the cleaner time to collect all the debris. Commercial companies are the most wear on the carpets. Health care companies often use antimicrobial treatments on the carpet to help prevent the spread of germs. Companies can also pay more for the carpet that is previously dyed before being tufted. This will provide additional protection against bleaching by cleaning agents and discolouration of sunlight. And, of course, companies have a regular schedule to clean their carpets. Emulating this at home will do a lot to keep your carpet cool.
There are many options when installing carpets and each style and type of fibre will work for you if you keep it regularly. Choosing the right carpet for your needs, having it properly installed and making sure it is professionally cleaned will go a long way in keeping your carpet clean and attractive for years to come. Or, opt for carpet cleaning!
The care of our face is of the utmost importance and we must protect it from all those agents that damage it, the sun, dust, sweat or contamination; A practical way to do it is with a facial. Facial cleansing is an essential routine to maintain the hygiene of facial skin. Dirt and environmental pollution, makeup and even stress are some factors that cause the skin to accumulate dirt and lose vitality, freshness and luminosity. As much as you clean your skin daily, it gets dirty every day. With the passage of time, our skin can become full of impurities. To finish with them and to have a splendid face again, a deep facial cleansing is necessary, which we will talk about next.
A facial is an exclusive facial cleansing and its intention is mainly the elimination of dead cells. Before doing any treatment you should always be cleansed, start with a mechanical exfoliation with your hands, that is, “drag the dead cells”. This process can also be chemical and is called “exfoliation with glycolic acid”. Keeping the face clean and taken care of is essential to show a healthy and pleasant looking skin. Even if you do not put on makeup, it is necessary to clean the skin every day to eliminate traces of cream, pollution, dust, etc. Of course, it is not enough to wash your face with soap and water, but every so often it is advisable to perform a deep cleaning, which should always be carried out by a professional.
And as we already know, there are different types of skin, normal, oily, dry, mixed and sensitive; so always balance the PH with a tonic and leave the skin balanced. Then the vials come, they can be nutritious, anti ageing, moisturizing or oxygenating; this help to hide the lines of expression. Finally, apply a sunscreen that leaves the complexion ready for any occasion and even for makeup; sometimes masks are also applied. The deep facial cleansing is critical to remove impurities, pimples and blackheads that can form on our face.
It is also the first step to optimize any aesthetic treatment you want to do later since it facilitates the penetration into the skin of the active compounds that are applied in cases of ultra hydrating shock, anti-age treatments or prior to mechanical or chemical peels. Even in those treatments that use equipment, such as electroporation, dermo LEDs or radiofrequency.
But what is deep facial cleansing?
Broadly speaking we will tell you what a professional deep facial cleansing is, so you know what steps apply to your face in a regular session. Experts recommend that starting at age 16 it is convenient to start a monthly care on the face with the intention of protecting and moisturizing the skin for years to come. If you still do not start, do not worry, look for a spa where you can get a facial and look healthy skin.
8 benefits of facial cleansing
The skin of the face is the one that is more exposed to dust and environmental contaminants, factors that fill it with impurities, irritate and make it susceptible to premature ageing if you do not have proper hygiene. Therefore, facial cleansing should be essential in your beauty routine. After a difficult day of work, the last thing you think about is washing your face, so it is common to go to sleep with a dirty face since there is a belief that nothing will happen. However, over time the skin looks dull and imperfections, which can also lead to infections due to various elements accumulating in the skin, such as makeup residue, sweat, dust, environmental pollutants, natural oils and dead cells.
- It allows the oxygenation of the skin.
- Cosmetic products designed to improve the appearance of the skin have greater effectiveness.
- Delays the appearance of wrinkles.
- The skin is brighter.
- Helps reduce the appearance of fatigue.
- Eliminates acne and blackheads.
- The skin looks smoother and smoother.
- A skin clean accepts and displays better makeup.
To achieve a successful facial cleansing you only have to moisten your face with a little warm water, then apply a cosmetic product suitable for your skin type and rinse. To not lose firmness apply a tonic with a cotton pad, finally, apply a moisturizing cream. Caring for the skin of your face is easier than you imagine, you just have to adopt the habit of washing your face every day. Remember that discipline is the key to success. The first step that is carried out, after determining your skin biotype (skin type), we proceed to the skin, then a gentle exfoliation is made and the manual removal or with appliances of the black spots that could be, especially in the areas of greater formation: the zone T. After this step comes to the application of a decongestive mask to eliminate redness or irritation of the skin after removal of black spots and then apply some light moisturizer and sunscreen.
What happens after the first session of deep facial cleansing?
The main thing you will notice is a more “white” aspect of your skin, the result of the extraction of unsightly black spots, more if they were in large quantities. On the other hand, you will notice that the texture of your skin will be much smoother and smoother, more uniform and even in its entirety.
How often can I perform a deep facial cleansing?
This depends on the specific needs of your skin. But in general, a deep facial cleaning once a month is recommended to keep the skin in good condition and optimize the use of the cosmetic products you use at home. In case of acne or skin with many impurities, a higher frequency may be necessary, for example, 1 or 2 times per week until the skin rebalances and improves its appearance and functioning. So if you want to look more radiant and clean, a deep facial is what you need.
Vibrant and surprising, this is Singapore, the Asian Tiger, a city, island and nation that with more than 5 million inhabitants has become a global icon. Together with Bangkok and Hong Kong, Singapore is currently one of the standards of Southeast Asia. Singapore is known for having two great national sports: eating and shopping. In a few places, food is taken so seriously and generates so much passion. This Food Blog is so far the best! In Asia, Singapore and Hong Kong are two great gastronomic centres. Singapore’s supporters argue that the city outperforms Hong Kong by having lower prices (by comparing the same level of service) and maintaining the same level of a Chinese rival.
There are numerous Food Blog and pages maintained on the internet by gourmets of Singapore of all ages and gastronomic interests addressing the food issue. Other pages are dedicated to sharing gastronomic experiences through the evaluations of their users. Questions like which is the best hawker or the best food court in the city or where you eat the best dish xo which is the best buffet or seafood restaurant and seafood generate heated discussions. Eating out is part of the day to day for a large part of Singaporeans. In addition, food plays an important role in family, religious, cultural and professional rituals of Singaporeans.
Flavours of Singapore – Food Blog:
Despite being a young country, Singapore ended up absorbing dishes from other cultures and creating versions that acquired their own identity with flavours that are only found in the city-state. The Laksa, the Hainanese Chicken Rice, the Roti Prata and the Rojak are some examples of dishes not originating in Singapore but that now have flavours or combinations of ingredients typical of the city.
The national dish is Chilli Crab, a dish born on the East Coast of Singapore that over the years, like the city itself, has been modified. But there are still places that claim to prepare the ancient recipe of Chilli Cobra. You can also try the Black Pepper Crab and the White Pepper Crab, more aromatic and less spicy versions.
Despite the fame of the drink created at the Raffles Hotel, Singapore Sling is far from being the national drink. Those who come closest to this concept would be coffee (Kopi, as it is called in Singapore) and tea (Teh in its local name) served in Singapore, which often with Malaysian influences adapted the city’s own colours.
The durian is the national fruit. With a very characteristic smell and flavour and an expensive price, it is a fruit that does not leave indifferent to those who taste it: either they love it or they hate it.
The Peranakan cuisine, a cuisine with Chinese roots and a strong Malay influence, also stands out in Singapore, having its historical origin in the first Chinese merchants who came to the island and married the locals. All thse are mentioned in the Food Blog.
The GUIDE OF SINGAPORE has a page dedicated entirely to the most typical flavours of Singapore.
These are the texts that we have already published in the GUIDE OF SINGAPORE about typical foods of the destination:
- Bak Kut The
- Biryani Rice
- Char kway teow
- Chilli Crab and many more!
- Flavours of Asia
As the country has its roots in Malaysian, Indian and Chinese cultures, there is no shortage of restaurant options that offer the city’s visitors the best of these cuisines. You can also taste dishes from Indonesia, a neighbouring country of Singapore, in the city. It is worth noting that the kitchens of almost all the regions of these countries are present in Singapore. Nothing to eat only Chinese Cantonese food as Food Blog is used to in some countries. In Singapore, there are culinary traditions from various regions of China, India and Indonesia. You have more information on pages we have dedicated guide to Chinese cuisine, the Indian cuisine and Malaysian cuisine.
The offer of Japanese restaurants is large and ranges from kaiten (sushi served on a conveyor belt), through Japanese buffets to the art of traditional kaiseki. We have given more information on the Japanese cooking page of this guide.
Flavours of the world
The English and Dutch regional influence of the past, the presence of a large expatriate community and a large influx of tourists, coupled with the huge interest for local food created in Singapore the conditions for it to become a fertile ground for the Establishment of restaurants that offer the best of world gastronomy. In Singapore, you can find from restaurants with the signature of famous chefs to representatives of the largest chains of restaurants and fast food in the world. From the Brazilian churrasco, through the Turkish, Persian, German, French, Italian, Irish, Spanish cuisine to the Mongolian cuisine that is also present in the city.
Flavours for all budgets at Food Blog
To eat well in Singapore, you do not have to spend a fortune. The famous food of the Hawkers and Food Courts has prices around 5 SGD. There are numerous neighbourhood restaurants offering regional food at affordable prices. But if you want to try menus with the signature of renowned chefs, you will not miss options either.
Why travel to Singapore?
Touring the Singapore River by boat, eating in a hawker, seeing the skyscrapers from Merlion Park, visiting Little India, walking through Chinatown and having a drink in Clarke Quay are some of the experiences you can experience in Singapore. If everything said above can encourage you to visit Singapore, once you travel you will realize that the best of the city is its unique and unique environment. Singapore is a city where you will find people any day at any time: concerts, events and street life are common to all the inhabitants of the city.
Discover why tourism in Singapore increases year after year.
This part of the guide is dedicated to give you advice on the main dishes and sign up some establishments where you can find good food that is served in Singapore at all levels of sophistication and price. Check more at Food Blog.
More than 40% of adults admit to having unprotected sex on occasion, which increases the risk of transmission of any of the more than 20 types of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) that exist. On specific dates, such as carnivals or summer, the incidence of these diseases increases considerably in the Canary Islands.
Many of these STDs do not show symptoms. Therefore, early detection is key both in the treatment of the disease and in the control of its contagion. In cheap std testing near me there is a specific profile to diagnose or rule out venereal diseases by molecular biology. It is only necessary to perform a simple blood test.
What are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)?
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infectious diseases that are transmitted through sexual contact. They are among the most common infectious diseases, and the United States has the highest rates of these diseases in the industrialized world.
Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases:
The best way to prevent getting an STD is to abstain from any type of sexual relationship. However, if you decide to have sexual activity, or are already sexually active, there are several precautionary measures you can take to help reduce the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and that are recommended by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIAID). Among these are:
- Have a mutually monogamous sexual relationship with an uninfected partner
- The use (consistent and correct) of the male condom
- The use of sterile needles if they inject intravenous drugs
- Decrease susceptibility to HIV infections by preventing and controlling other sexually transmitted diseases
Delay the onset of sexual intercourse as much as possible – the younger the person is when they start having sex for the first time, the more susceptible it is to get a sexually transmitted disease.
- Have regular checks for the detection of sexually transmitted diseases
- Learn the symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases and seek medical help as soon as possible before any symptoms
- Avoid having sex during menstruation
- Avoid anal intercourse, or use a male condom
- Avoid douching
What to do when diagnosed with an STD?
Begin treatment immediately, take all medications and follow the advice of the doctor.
- Do not breastfeed or use breast milk to feed the baby.
- Inform all your recent sexual partners and insist that they go to the doctor.
- Avoid sexual activity while on treatment for the sexually transmitted disease.
- Follow up tests to make sure that the sexually transmitted disease has been treated successfully.
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The importance of detecting Sexually Transmitted Diseases in time
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) represent a group of pathologies that can have disastrous consequences, especially if they are not diagnosed early. Some of them even, until they are in a very advanced state, appear without symptoms; That’s when complications arise, sometimes irreversible. The detection of STDs before their development, treatment and prevention, are fundamental pillars in all Public Health policies of advanced societies. The Laboratory has recently acquired the technology that allows it to detect a large number of these diseases.
There are many cheap std testing near me. Some present with rashes or skin lesions, pain in the genitals, burning urination, fever or malaise, among other symptoms. However, some diseases can take weeks, months and even years without generating symptoms. In fact, sometimes these symptoms never appear, although the carrier of the disease can continue to spread it. For this reason, its detection is a key factor not only to start the treatment as soon as possible but to prevent the disease from spreading and spreading.
Causes of STDs
STDs can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Some of the best known are chlamydia, gonorrhoea, HIV, human papillomavirus, genital herpes and syphilis, among others. Some of them, if not detected early and treated, can cause serious disorders and even death, such as HIV, which causes AIDS. In addition, these types of diseases can cause serious health problems for the baby, in case of pregnancy, such as malformations or premature births. At present, blood tests, gynaecological samples and urine are sufficient to detect STDs, although symptoms are not suffered. Analysis has at its disposal the necessary technology to perform a wide range of detections.
What is the test to detect Sexually Transmitted Diseases?
Detection by the molecular biology of 7 sexually transmitted pathogens: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma parvum, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Trichomonas vaginalis. In this way, it broadly covers the most frequent causes of urethritis and cervicitis. This new profile also allows the detection of HIV and Syphilis. The first is done by detecting Antibodies and P24 Antigen by chemiluminescence.
- For men, the first urination of the first-morning urine is used or after two hours without urinating and drawing blood.
- For women, the first urination of the first urine in the morning or after having spent two hours without urinating, or taking endocervical exudate by your gynaecologist and blood extraction is used.
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Peoples or individuals can buy used cars for extremely evident reasons. Like it’s less expensive than the new car, the person who has a tight family spending plan they acknowledge the need to spare a little amount wherever but it must be conceivable. Used cars in Fontana are not really low-quality vehicles. Some of the other used cars have tough motors but that card life period is very reliable. Before going out to buy a used car in Fontana you ought to consider the things with the specific goals and requirements that you settle on the ideal choice of used cars.
- Administration history of the used car:
The used car in Fontana is heavy and can be sold at minimum prices but you should appear the administration routine. You should check the history of the car by its number. Automobile merchants and police have previous records you should request for checking.
- Enormous fixes in the used car:
Knowing a repair shop is extremely valuable but the vital point is to discover one that has no stake in whether you purchase the used or new auto. You should be careful with web advertisements that resemble rating local cars in Fontana.
- Is this used car is reliable or not?
You should check before buying that used car hat is it reliable or not. Purchase report is a go-to side for some customers since it not just records the cars history in different values. Here you need to check additional cautions and information about the car.
- Does this used car has a great test score?
You should check the car test score however crash test score is more worthy when merits putting on your radar screen.
- How much this used car utilizes the fuel quantity?
You can look at the car normal fuel mileage at different sites but definitely, you must prefer that car which will consume less fuel.
- You should request for inspection:
Before buying you must be inspecting all the features of the car and let your trained mechanic checked this used car before purchasing. This inspection and checking can resolve some difficulties which are underneath the root of your mind.
- Approve of ownership of the used car:
Most of the time you’re managing an individual property and not tie up a proper deal with them. You must ensure that whoever is selling the car to you have a genuine and approved agreement.
- Investigate some of the reviews of the car on the web:
There are numerous sites of cars in which you saw detailed information about any model. It’s somewhat more customer training to check these survey, however, will be well beneficial.
- Take at least 2 test drive of the car:
You have to drive the car so that you must be able to know that this car will fit in your hands or not. This will enable you to have a thought of how the auto reacts to you as a driver. You should try to test the used car in a variety of environments. Now after a test drive if you feel any disclosure or if you feel that this car is not comfortable then go for the other options in the market of Fontana.
- Is the car sounds?
Are there stains on the motor or the underside of the car demonstrating that it’s leaking or sounds? In the event that you can see the majority of threads like this now, it’s a right time to skip this offer.
- Is this used car is stolen?
On the off chance that you unconsciously buy a stolen car the police can track you. So before buying any used car, you should check the previous records.
- Ask the seller to get the card title and number:
If your seller does not have the car title and palette number than you must not buy a car from him. Always buy that product that has a warranty card.
- Has this used car been in a surge?
A used car is normally viewed as an aggregate misfortune and the title so noted. In any of the case, you have to keep this thing in your mind that a surge used car will be tidied up, not enlisted as a rescue and sent outside the surge territory. You will face mechanical and electrical issue after buying surge car.
- Research the checklist of the car:
You should make a point to translate the VIN to the seller. After this, you should survey the vehicle history report and consider taking a gander at an ensured pre-claimed car. Ask your seller to give you certified pre-own agreement papers. After obtaining an ensured pre-claimed car paper you can now make the decision to pay. Numerous neighborhood cars merchants in Fontana offer these used cars with a guarantee that stretch out past the underlying new scope.
- Set aside your opportunity to help avoid buyer’s remorse:
Just to place off you from purchaser regret never hurry into purchasing a used car. Setting aside the opportunity to so careful research and consult with the other peoples who are aware of these used cars. Take suggestions with the other friends and family to make the decision more powerful.
Buying a used car is an energizing prospect because of devaluation. It’s valuable to recognize what to pay special mind to before you make the vital buy. You can check the administration and history of the car which is important for you to spend in a right and secure way. So it’s great to put some essential steps for verification before buying any car. You should check the condition of the car and investigate the previous records of the car for satisfaction. But it may have more issues you have to face during the car investigation for further you should o the other mechanical engineer. These things rapidly transform a fantasy engine into a stack for the buyer of the car.
If you are fans of the aquatic world and the fish species and you want to have some in a homemade variety of pond, you must ensure that you will give the right conditions, for that it is necessary that you have at hand the best aquarium lamp on the market. So to have a well-kept aquarium in the house you should first measure the size, decide on certain types of lighting, and do a test of what you need, if you led aquarium lighting.
Led aquarium lighting:
- Led aquarium lighting during the night
Something fundamental to keep in mind is the day/night cycles in the aquarium. This is very important when it comes to preventing your fish from being stressed by lack or excess of light. Stresses makes fish sick or not develop properly. In nature, there is rarely total darkness during the night and that is why LED lights are used in the aquarium. They are quite economical and allow the fish to orient themselves and continue with their natural behavior at night. It has even been proven that many corals proliferate vigorously when you imitate the moonlight. We recommend that you use a timer to regulate the lights automatically.
- Led aquarium lighting during the day
For the day special lamps are used for aquariums. These emit certain wavelengths that are not present in the common lights. It will be very useful and interesting to start investigating what are the needs of the fish that you have in your aquarium. For example, species from forested rivers do not receive direct light in their natural habitat and, probably, you should light the aquarium for fewer hours than for other species. On the other hand, those who come from tropical regions or shallow reefs are used to direct sunlight for many hours a day and need it to live and develop, like aquatic plants. For corals, it is also essential to use actinic lights. The light on the blue side of the spectrum they emit has a wavelength that is easily absorbed by corals and their symbiotic algae during photosynthesis. These are led aquarium lighting with low intensity, so they are usually combined with other stronger lights.
- The colour temperature of Led aquarium lighting
The colour temperature, measured in Kelvin, expresses what colour of the spectrum predominates in the light emitted by each bulb. For aquariums lights, less than 5,500ºK are not used, since they encourage the growth of algae. An example of this type of lights is incandescent bulbs, which are not suitable for aquariums. Lamps between 5,500 and 6,500ºK are those used for freshwater aquariums with plants.
The 10,000ºK give a very intense white light with a bluish tint and are ideal for reefs or deeper freshwater aquariums. Finally, those of 20,000ºK emit a very strong and blue light that is recommended only for very deep aquariums and deep-sea fish. Actinic lights are not measured in degrees Kelvin because they are in the ultraviolet zone and are used only for reef aquariums, since they are important for the development of corals as well as highlighting their natural fluorescence.
- Types of lamps for aquariums
Lamp types are not as important as intensity or colour. This part depends exclusively on your taste and your budget since there are large price variations between them. The most economical are incandescent bulbs, although there are different colours, none goes beyond 2,700ºK (up to 3,000ºK for halogen). These lights give a yellow light and stimulate the growth of algae, in addition to generating too much heat. Its use is only recommended for small fishbowls.
- Fluorescent tubes for aquariums
The most commonly used lights are fluorescent tubes and only those manufactured specifically for aquariums are appropriate. They tend to be quite cheap, they do not emit much heat and you will find them in different colours. The most common tubes are those known as T12, T8 and T5, classified according to diameter. The first two use common ballasts, while the T5 require much more expensive electronic ballasts. The T5 has the advantage of being smaller, so you can combine more tubes in a small space and get more light intensity.
For very deep tanks or those that require a lot of led aquarium lighting, there are fluorescent tubes of high emission (HO – high output) or very high emission (VHO – very high output), with greater penetration in the water. These last less than normal fluorescents and it is difficult to get the artefacts to install them, which is why many fish breeders use Power Compact fluorescent lamps instead. They are smaller and use less energy to produce the same intensity of light. They are available in the same colours as the previous ones, associated with two or four tubes for the same connection. They are a bit more expensive, but they are still an economical alternative.
- Metal halide led to aquariums
Finally, the led aquarium lighting for aquariums that produce the brightest light at present is those of metal halide. They are very popular in reef aquariums because their light produces a reflection very similar to that of the sun on the water and they provide enough light for the demanding corals, clams and anemones. They have some drawbacks, such as its high price, as well as the artefacts needed to install them, which are specific to each voltage (ranging between 70 and 1,000 watts per bulb). Another problem is that they are delicate and you should not touch the glass with your fingers, as the fat of the skin weakens them.
They also get very hot when they are on and should be left to cool for at least an hour before handling them. Do not forget that at us you will find everything you need to light up your aquarium correctly with the best led aquarium lighting that will make your fish live happily both day and night.
The silo structure is a web architecture designed to improve the SEO of a website. It has been used for more than a decade, although Spain has arrived somewhat later. And there is still discussion about its real effectiveness. Some say it is a great way to get relevant positions for highly competitive keywords, relatively quickly.Others say that it is often impossible to apply it, or that the results are not worth the effort.
In this article, we are going to collect everything we know about the silo structure and the main doubts about it. And we will update it with an own experiment with which we will prove its real effectiveness. The design of sites in silos is a concept coined by Charles Heflin of Seo2020 in his book “The Master Plan”. It refers to the way we should structure our sites to get more traffic not only for our “long tail” terms but also for more competitive terms, being seen as well as an Authority Site in a short time. Looking for Building a Web Site Using A Silo Structure?
We ask ourselves how to do so?
If you are new or experienced, you will have realized by now that search engine optimization is not a simple thing. The algorithms are constantly changing and making the famous updates that have harmed us or one of our clients more than once.
What should we pay attention to fir Building a Web Site Using A Silo Structure?
- In a few words, we must rely on generating very good content.
- Fresh and contrasting information.
- Social networks: Promoting our links through social networks helps us to an organic positioning and attract interested visitors in our sector.
- One of the most important parts of the optimization of a website is the architecture of the URLs in SILO. This is highly recommended for websites that specialize in a specific topic and want to get positioned on all the long tail terms.
What are URLs in SILO?
The URLs in SILO allow search engines to know better the content of a website. It is about the different levels of independent categories from the home and from each branch of subcategories and entries that can link to their same level or back, but would not link with the ramifications of different categories.
Example of URLs in SILO
If we see the graph of the definition, we imagine a web that goes about pets. For example, pets.com. We would have a category of DOGS, the URL would look like this: pets / dogs
The URLs can link with each other and with the lower level (dogs), but not with / Cats, because it would not have to see. If the web is new we should modify these URLs to optimize them to the maximum, the problem is if we have been on the blog for a long time. To change it could be a problem even if we have redirects; it is convenient not to abuse them.
How do we change the default URLs in WordPress?
We can change the word “category” for another by entering Settings / Permanent links and writing a new base category. This work in the structure of our site must be done after the research of keywords and before starting to build something since it constitutes the skeleton. It is a very important part of the process of creating websites, and at the same time, it can be complicated to understand. How will it help us bring more traffic? Making it very easy for search engines to realize what our site is about. Google has introduced the concept of Latent Semantic Indexing, which judges a site for its relevance to a subject. We no longer speak of keyword density, but of subject density. The subject density is how many related words appear connected to the subject of a page that is considered relevant by the search engines.
The theme density cannot be done with a single page. You need a complete site that supports the theme density, through a correct link to the internal pages. For this, the best way is to use the silo structure. For example, on eBay we see a menu where he shows us his categories. Clicking on one, it shows another menu with all the sub-categories – a silo. And we can even reach another level until we reach the specific products page. Another example would be About.com, each subdomain of them is a theme, and each item in your menu is a silo. Do you may have, learned till now about Building a Web Site Using A Silo Structure.
Confused? It is best to use an image that better explains the concept:
Building a Web Site Using A Silo Structure and organizing our site into a silo structure, you will improve individual pages within a silo, and the silo itself. This is a powerful factor to take advantage of 99% of other sites! This is how by playing intelligently we can master the niches (with quality content!).
How to organize our site in silos?
Each silo is a section of the page, so if your page is for example “video games”, one section would be Xbox 360, another PS3 another Wii, and so on. Each of these sections is a silo, a theme. The index will be linked to the entry page of each silo. Each silo page will link to the contents of that silo with a menu. Building a Web Site Using A Silo Structure is best as the silo is based on folders within your structure (they can be in subdomains, worse in folders is easier) and each silo has to have at least 5 pages to be considered a topic.
So, for example, your site example.com, you will have your niche of PS3 in example.com/ps3/index.html, and all the themes of ps3 will be inside this folder. In this way, you will have your related pages in such a way that search engines can easily find them and you will be rewarded. It is a concept that is also very helpful for visitors since they will find content 100% related to what they were looking for.
The Oldest working Post Office is situated in Sanquhar, Dumfriesshire, UK. It has been working consistently since 1712. The second most established working mail station is situated in Stockholm, Sweden (1720) and the third in Santiago, Chile (1772)
Sanquhar Post Office:
Sanquhar post office started as an arranging post for mail carriages started about 300 years ago and has been in ceaseless administration since then. Eight years older than its closest opponent in Stockholm, Sweden, it is formally honored by both the Universal Postal Union and Guinness World Records. The branch is a well-known fascination for postal and stamp lovers, who visit to have their letters set apart with a hand-stamp bearing the legend: “The World’s Oldest Post Office.” Mr. Alam is the sixteenth person to run the branch and assumed control from postmistress Penny Murphy.
Sanquhar post office opened its entryway in 1712 in Dumfries along the High Street. It is recognized by the Guinness Book of Records as the oldest mail station on the planet. At the point when the mail station was opened, the postmen, who were called “runners,” kept running between officers to convey letters and packages. In 1738, the mail station started stamping sends and later acquainted steeds which were utilized with conveying letters and bundles. The mail station had no counters when it started its operations.
Operations of Sanquhar Post Office:
The letters were delivered through the window, where the clients are expected to tap the window and submit their letters along with the postal charges. The position of a postmaster was esteemed and was constantly held by men in other legitimate positions in the group, for example, executives, schoolmasters, and town agents. The mail station was modernized in 1974 with the substitution of the hand stamping by the hand-worked crossing out machine called bacon slicer. The historical backdrop of the Sanquhar post office has been formed by the group of Matthew Hogarth who maintained the business for a long time is as yet a committed client.
William Dalgleish, 75, vice executive of the Sanquhar Heritage Society, said that the post office worked distinctively in its initial days. There was no counter as we probably are aware them today. The mail was delivered through the window of the post office – you tapped on the window, delivered your mail and paid whatever charge was expected, and that is how it was finished. The role of a postmaster in society was viewed with respect, and as we stated earlier, a postmaster was always someone who held other respectable positions in the society.
The first known usage of postal service is in Egypt in 2400 B.C. Kings of Egypt used postal service to send official orders throughout their territory. There is also proof of postal service used in ancient China, Persia, and India. The Universal Postal Union was founded in the year 1874. The Universal Postal Union incorporates 192 member nations. It is also responsible for setting up the rules and regulations for international mail exchanges.
At first, the envelopes are made of cloth and skins of animals. After the invention of papers, the postal system started using paper envelopes. China is the first country to invent and use paper envelopes.
A French man named De Valayer started a postal service at Paris, in 1653. He used to sell prepaid envelopes and deliver the letters in the mailbox if they are enveloped with his prepaid envelopes.
Postal service started using postal stamps in 1837. Uniform postal charges were started in 1840 through the efforts of Rowland Hill, a school teacher.
The postal system works globally. Every postal service is connected with each other through the coordination of Universal Postal Union. These postal systems are now outdated when compared with modern fax and e-mail technologies. Postal systems are still the best mode of transmission for sending the personal handwritten documents to any location. Postal systems are still operating smoothly without the need for modern technologies.
Postal service in America:
Postal service was started in America during the colonial times to send and receive orders between England and American colonies. The first postal route in America was started between New York and Boston, which is now named as Route 1. After the establishment of centralized postal systems in the year 1693, The Governor of New Jersey was appointed as the deputy postmaster general. Benjamin Franklin developed the postal system by laying new roads and milestones on every route. He also started 24 hours mailing system between New York and Philadelphia.
Current status of postal system:
Almost every country uses the postal system embedded with local exchanging letters and official documents. In most post offices banking system has been started for rural areas and places with no banks. Governmental services and benefits are still delivered through postal service. In some rural areas in Africa medications and vaccinations are distributed through post offices.
Modern courier services have been started using the postal system. Courier services are both centralized and privatized. These courier services enable people to send parcels and covers to any place in the world. Though the internet has been developed to make sending emails and documents an instantaneous process, postal services are still used by many countries for their unique system.
The Postal Service seeks to cuts its full time employees by 228,000 in the next two to three years. A review of attrition rates over the past three years indicates that layoffs are unavoidable. Even with early retirement incentives, layoffs will likely be between 120,000 and 130,000. Without these incentives they would be even higher.
Attrition of Employees over 50
Attrition of Postal employees over 50 comes from retirement, death, and voluntary and involuntary separation from the Postal Service Early retirement incentives were offered to different groups of employees in 2009 and 2011. So the attrition rates below include the impact of these incentives.
Assuming that the Postal Service offers similar incentives to eligible employees, it should see a reduction in full time career employee among employees who are 50 or older today by around 94,000. The Postal Service should see total full time employee count by 100,000 if those under 50 leave Postal Service employment at historical levels. This quick analysis confirms Postal Service statements that it would have to lay off at least 120,000 employees in the next few years as it restructures its service.
The Importance of Early Retirement Incentives
By looking at one-year attrition rates, the importance of incentives becomes clear. Attrition rates of those over 50 rose between 2009 and 2010 reflecting the impact of the early retirement incentives for 150,000 employees that went into effect in the fall of 2009. As could be expected attrition rates fell in 2010-2011 as early retirement incentives pushed up retirement by a year for some employees.
Attrition rates for employees over 65 appears to suggest that the incentive may have had a real impact for these workers as it induced more retirements than would otherwise occur without having much impact on retirement decisions of employees who continued to work after the incentive expired.
Attrition rates for those between 50 and 60 actually dropped after an early retirement incentive was offered which suggests that the incentive may have only had the effect of convincing employees who were likely to leave for other employment to leave a year earlier and may not have had much of an impact on the number of Postal employees in that cohort over a longer period.
Postal reform has to both serve the citizens of the United States both in urban areas and the most rural parts of the Great Plains and Appalachia. It must also ensure that business customers that now generate 90% of mail volume will continue to see the Postal Service as an attractive delivery service in 5 and ten years. These four individuals who have limited understanding of the details of the Postal Service’s problems identify three critical elements that have to be part of any postal reform that ensures both universal service and the Postal Service’s survival as a self-sufficient entity. They are:
- Profit must be an explicit goal for organization and profit must reflect a sufficient operating margin to ensure cash is generated to make capital investments needed to improve service once the current financial difficulties pass. There is no excuse for the Postal Service to be the only large national post suffering major losses in the Euro Zone, North America, and Oceana and Australia.
- The Postal Service has to be granted significant relief from both Congressional and Postal Regulatory Commission oversight. To the extent that either law or regulatory precedent freezes the status quo and prevents market-based pricing and market-based service quality that law and those regulations must be removed. In particular both restrictions on distance based and regional pricing for commercial mailers need to be lifted in order to develop market-based and not cost-based prices.
- Transition of the Postal Service to an entity that operates under standard corporate business, employment, and contract law must occur within a reasonable period. During this period, the privatization of the Postal Service as a public utility providing delivery services must be examined serious.
Australia Post’s retail strategy provides the best example of a retail strategy that could serve both urban and rural communities in the United States. Australia Post serves both very large cities and some of the most rural areas in the developed world. Australia Post also illustrate what is needed in develooping that can use both corporate and contracted outlets with most retail services provided in contracted or franchised outlets. Australia Post is of particular interest as it most proved retail services to a significant number of communities that are as remote as any community in the most rural parts of the United States.
Australia Post has four types of contract or franchised outlets.
- Licensed Post Offices provide two thirds of all retail outlets of Australia Post and are located in urban, suburban and rural areas.
- Community Post Offices are located in the most rural and remote areas. There are 650 Community Post Offices in Australia.
- Franchises are the newest contracted outlet. Australia Post has not provided information on the number of franchises.
- Post Shops (Corporate Post Offices) – corporate Post Offices are located primarily in larger communities.
The following are descriptions of the non-corporate retail outlets that Australia Post uses that is provided by Australia Post on its website
Licensed post offices (LPOs)
The products and services available from these outlets are generally the same as offered at corporately owned and operated outlets. The availability of agency services, such as bill payment facilities and banking is usually dependent on the commercial choices of the principal of the particular agency.
Key benefits of the LPO model include:
- use of Australia Post’s well established brand
- annually revised fee and commission structure, with discounts for the purchase of Australia Post products
- access to management and business systems
- on-going professional training and support
- opt in for point-of-sale and marketing programs.
The LPO model at a glance
- LPOs can be run as stand alone outlets or in conjunction with another business.
- A licensee is granted a licence to use Australia Post systems, manuals, trade marks and image in the operation of a LPO at nominated premises.
- There is no term for the licence, and the licence can be assigned at any time subject to Australia Post approval.
- Licensees can manage the outlet on a day to day basis or appoint a manager. They are also responsible for recruiting, training and managing their staff.
- LPOs offer a mandatory range of Australia Post products and services including postage stamps, money orders, bill payment and banking, and mail acceptance and processing. Additional products and services such as philatelic items; Postpak; cards, stationery and gifts; and Post Office Boxes may also be offered. Some LPOs are also required to undertake mail processing and delivery work.
- Trading hours are typically between 9am to 5pm Monday to Friday. LPOs often open for extended trading (eg Saturday mornings) depending on local circumstances.
- Licensees are responsible for the premises, including location, fit-out (both of which are subject to Australia Post approval), maintenance and for all operating costs. They may also be required to pay a point-of- sale technology fee.
- Income is earned from fees and commissions for work performed, and a discount for the purchase of Australia Post products also applies.
The Postal Regulatory Commission never seems to miss an opportunity to miss an opportunity. Yesterday in its Section 701 Report: Analysis of the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act of 2006, the Commission combined a full throated defense of aggressive regulation, with some tepid suggestions for policy change. The report is neither in line with the current economics of the Postal market, nor the current political environment. As such it is likely to be ignored.
The failure of the Commission’s report as an important policy document is gingerly explained by the Postal Service in its response.
Improving the Postal Service’s financial stability in both the short-term and the long-term requires more comprehensive changes than are discussed in the Commission’s draft report.
Part of the cause of its failure as an important policy document is who wrote it, the Postal Regulatory Commission. Rarely does a regulatory commission would ever write a report that does not promote its own self-interest or support less regulation over more regulation. As such, the report’s sections reviewing actions that the Commission has taken leave a self-congratulatory impression, and the sections recommending changes that affect its powers tend to recommend changes that increase the Commission’s powers rather than diminish it.
The Commission’s overall thinking about regulation and in particular its support of a strong regulator is a real problem and deserves to be ignored for three reasons
- First, the Commission’s assumption that Postal Service customers and competitors need intense protection from unfettered competition is an assumption that has been abandoned in every other mode that delivers physical items from a sender to a recipient in the United States, and has lost significant support in countries that have pursued postal reform more aggressively.
- Second, the Commission’s regulatory approach favors maintaining the status quo in an environment in which the status quo is clearly untenable
- Third, the Commission’s regulatory approach continues to maintain regulatory lags and regulatory barriers that prevent the Postal Service and its customers from making business and personal decisions that would allow them to adapt to the changing postal market as rapidly as the market changes.
Now is the time for an independent assessment of postal regulation with a focus on determining:
- the minimum amount of regulation that the postal market requires to protect individual consumers and universal service; and
- an approach for regulating competition between the Postal Service and its private sector competitors in regards to non-postal services that favors competition over protection.
The Goin’Postal franchise in Fenton, Michigan recently announced that it has expanded its offerings to include office supplies. This announcement provides another illustration that stand-alone mailing or parcel shipping retail outlets cannot survive unless they provide a diversified selection of business and/or consumer products and services.
In the United States, the corporate outlets of FedEx and franchised outlets of United Parcel Service operate as business service centers.
After its purchase of Kinko’s, FedEx eliminated a number of its parcel shipping only retail outlets with outlets offering printing and copying services as well. The outlets, renamed FedEx Office have father diversified its services by adding more office supplies and digital printing services as demand for copying has shrunk dramatically. FedEx is also using its FedEx Office outlets as alternative pick-up locations to home or office delivery.
United Parcel Service has been repositioning its UPS Stores as community business centers, in a manner similar to what the Fenton, Michigan Goin’ Postal outlet is doing. In particular, UPS is working to expand its franchisees’ capabilities in printing and direct mail. United Parcel Service has developed a program with the Postal Service to promote the use of Every Door Direct Mail among UPS Store business customers. The UPS Store and the Graphic Communication Institute at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, have run twelve 3-day programs to train franchisors on the latest software and digital printing and finishing technologies. With over 3,500 locations in the United States, UPS stores could become a significant force in digital printing design even if they do not do the actual printing themselves.
Outside of the United States, Australia Post has developed a similar model for their franchised retail outlets and possibly their corporate offices. These outlets sell everything imaginable, with most of the items purchased from a catalog of products that Australia Post offers to its franchisees. In addition, Australia Post franchisees and corporate offices offer a range of financial services that complement services of Australia’s commercial banks.
Yesterday, John McCain introduced a postal reform bill that his press release describes as the “companion to the legislation that Representative Darrell Issa introduced in the House of Representatives.” Based on press reports, the bill combines elements from the Issa-Ross Postal Reform Act of 2011 with proposals that Senator McCain made earlier this year in amendments to other legislation.
By calling his proposal a companion legislation to the Ross-Issa House bill, Senator McCain allowed Congressman Issa rename his bill the Issa-McCain-Ross bill in his Washington Times Op-ed.
Senator McCain’s announcement is particularly important in molding opinion on postal reform in Washington and nationwide for a couple of reasons.
- Senator McCain’s bill increases the likelihood that elements of the House approach will be included in the bill that passes the Senate and signed by the President. The Senate Bill will require approval by 60 members and outside of Senators Brown, Collins, Grassley, Murkowski, and Snowe who will support a measure coming from provisions in legislation that either Senator Carper or Senator Collins have discussed. It is much easier identifying 41 Republicans that would support the approach that Senator McCain has identified.
- Prior to Senator McCain’s announcement, the only possible spokespeople for the Issa-Ross bill were Congressman Issa and Ross. There are no other co-sponsors of the Postal Reform Act of 2011 in the House of Representatives, and it is unclear where the House leadership stands on this issue. All other Senators that have spoken on postal issues have significantly different opinions on postal reform, particularly in regard to adjusting retirement liabilities.
- Senator McCain is a more appealing spokesperson for the reform approach developed by Congressman Issa and Ross than either House member. Senator McCain is the former Presidential nominee of the Republican Party, a Senator with strong ties to the Republican establishment, and a Senator who is respected among “serious people” in Washington, DC. Congressman Issa has a more confrontational image on other policy issues and these confrontations have made him an object of attack from Democratic leaning bloggers. Congressman Ross is a freshman with limited experience in interviews and his votes clearly place him in the more conservative wing of the Republican House caucus.
- Senator McCain has extensive experience speaking on Sunday talk shows and cable news and his relationship with the press is relatively friendly that will likely give his statements on postal reform more gravitas than less experienced spokesmen.
Right now there is little information about the McCain bill besides what is included in his press release and reported by the Washington Post. No legislative language has been released as of the writing of this post.
A recent story by the BBC on mail delivery in Afghanistan highlights one of the most important roles of the Postal Service, maintaining and standardizing the nation’s system of addresses and postal codes. Afghanistan has neither a standardized system of address nor postal codes. In fact, in many parts of the country, there are no street names, let alone street names at all.
Postal Service as a Platform for Commerce
The story about the Afghan Postal Service, provides an illustration of the challenge of communications in the 17th and 18th century. Door-to-door delivery cannot be performed unless it is relatively inexpensive to find the door where the delivery is to be made. The standardization of addresses and creation of numerical codes defining discrete geographic areas in the 20th century significantly aided the economic growth of the United States in the 1960′s forward.
Logistics and Distribution
The creation of zip-codes simplified the process of optimizing the nation’s supply chains. Developing the optimal locations of plants and warehouses and minimizing the transportation between these locations depends on the existence of a simple, numerical representation of the locations involved. Similarly, optimizing the routing of delivery vehicles, whether for the delivery of bread to supermarkets, beer to bars and restaurants, or packages to homes and businesses rely on the system of zip codes. Delivery is further simplified by the use of standardized address systems that make it easier to know where 123 Main Street is relative to 256 Main street. (Usually a block a way and on the opposite side of the street.
The existence of zip-codes and standard addresses made home delivery of parcels much easier. The development of the great Catalog stores of the early 20th century (i.e. Sears, Montgomery Wards), modern catalog merchants (i.e. LL Bean, Lands End), TV shopping channels, and web-based retailers all require the inexpensive delivery services that zip-codes and standardized addresses provide.
Marketing and Merchandising
Standardized addresses and zip-codes significantly lowered the cost of targeted marketing and targeted merchandising.
Targeted marketing really starts with direct mail. Direct mail is cost-effective because standardized addresses and numerical codes for addresses allow for lower cost delivery of hard-copy communications that make mail cost-effective for everything from charitable solicitations to pizza coupons.
Standardized addresses and zipcodes have a role in marketing beyond mail as they are critical for creating relevant advertising on the web and on mobile devices. Knowing where a person lives significantly improves the placement of relevant advertisements on web pages and mobile devices. Even Facebook allows marketers to target by zip-codes.
Andrew Gelman, a professor of statistics at Columbia University and a prolific writer on statistics and its use in public policy and political campaigns illustrated that the financial problem facing the Postal Service is a legacy of the regulatory structure and financial objects of the Postal Service under the Postal Rate Commission. While not familiar with the current debate, his post in Statistical Modeling, Causal Inference, and Social Science, states what should be clear for anyone who has studied business. An enterprise will find profitability difficult if not impossible if its customers have more market or political power than it has.
Basically, the post office is always broke because it’s legally required to be broke. It’s not like other utilities which are regulated in a gentle way to allow them to make profits. Looking at this from a political direction, things must somehow be set up so that the Postal Service’s customers have more clout than the Postal Service itself. I don’t really have a sense of why this would happen for mail more than for gas, electricity, water, etc.
Rates charged by the Postal Service need to reflect rates that a profitable well managed firm would charge. The Postal Service cannot afford to offer lower rates to customers that have political clout. This will likely result in higher rates for single piece First Class, Periodicals, and non-Profit Standard mail.
The Postal Service faces significant problems that threaten its survival. The financial problems are well known but solvable. However, solving the financial problems in a way that ensures a vibrant postal market as long as the prevailing story line is that “we have a delivery service whose raison d’être is rapidly vanishing before our eyes.” as illustrated by a recent New York Times article. Until that view is reversed, neither Congress nor any President will look at any proposal ensuring the survival of the Postal Service beyond the impact on the budget or local jobs and services.
The Postal Service is a Business Service
For at least the past two decades mail has been a service for commercial and government entities. While expansion of Internet and broadband access to household is often thought as the driver as the decline in consumer use of mail, business/government/non-profit share of mail volume has remained close to 90% of mail volume.
- 1987 – 88.8%
- 2006 -90.6%
- 2007 – 90.6%
- 2008 – 90.2%
- 2009 – 89.8%
If one adds mail sent by individuals to business, government, or non-profit, the share of mail that involves a business, government, or non-profit is
- 1987 – 95.2%
- 2006 – 97.0%
- 2007 – 97.3%
- 2008 – 97.1%
- 2009 – 96.9%
The slight decline in the commercial share of mail reflects the impact of the recession on economically sensitive commercial mailers.
To the extent that consumers have abandoned mail because they don’t sent personal cards and letters that abandonment happened well over 20 years ago. One might argue that the decline in consumer use of mail had more to do with the universal access to land-line local and long-distance telephone service and the deregulation of long-distance telephone rates as the abandonment happened well before e-mail or other web-based services were accessible to every office worker and most homes.